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前言
«全日制高级中学英语教学大纲»规定高中英语教学的目的,“是在义务教育初中英语教学的基础上,巩固、扩大学生的基础知识,发展听说读写的基本技能,培养在口头上和书面上初步运用英语进行交际的能力。”自1992年全国范围内开始使用新教材以来,学生的听说能力确实有了相当大的提高,过去那种“哑巴英语”、“聋子英语”的状况已有很大改观。但学生的写作能力并没有明显的长进,某种程度上还有所下降。特别是在写作过程中,先用汉语思考,然后译成英语,从而造成汉语式英语的情形非常普遍。还有一些同学,虽然能写出合乎英语语法的句子,但文章缺少洋味,经多年练习也没有实质性的突破。另一方面,作为中学教学“指挥棒”的高考,在命写作题时却裹足不前,给考生的限制条件太多,窒息了学生的想象力和创造性,也直接影响到中学英语教学,考生始终围绕少数几个题型训练,无法真正提高写作水平,形成写作能力。
为了弥补上述两个缺陷,作者精选了170篇短文,试图通过对这些文章的赏析,就人物描写这一个方面引导读者欣赏它们在写法上的精妙之处,再通过练习,将学到的写作手法,写作特点,常用句型和词汇用到自己的作文中,达到学以致用,举一反三的目的。逐步提高写作水平。
本书将170篇短文分为两部分,第一部分85篇,按写作的侧重点分为中华儿女、域外名人、名人逸事、大众脸谱、幽默小品、语言描写、动作描写、心理描写、外貌描写等九章,每章分为若干小节,每节又由赏析、范文、注释和练习四部分构成。第二部分85篇按写作特点或人物类型与第一部分一一对应,作为参考答案附录于后供读者查阅、对照。当然这些答案只是一种可能的写法,读者完全可以按照自己的理解与想法去写。然后参照参考答案找出不足,加以修改。也可以将范文和参考答案对照阅读,从中发现描写同类人物时所用的共同词汇,句子结构和写作方法。在自己的写作实践中尝试使用。
本书在编撰过程中参考了大量的报刊杂志、英文名著,并从互联网上下载了部分人物传记,未能一一注明,在此对上述文章、书籍的作者深表谢意。
编撰这样的一本书还是一个新的尝试,再加上作者水平有限,书中难免存在错漏之处,恳请使用此书的读者不吝批评指正。
吕明祥
2001年6月
目录
第一章:中华儿女……………………………1
第一节………………………………………1
第二节………………………………………
第三节………………………………………
第四节………………………………………
第五节………………………………………
第六节………………………………………
第七节………………………………………
第八节………………………………………
第九节………………………………………
第十节………………………………………
第二章 域外名人……………………………
第一节……………………………………
第二节……………………………………
第三节……………………………………
第四节……………………………………
第五节……………………………………
第六节……………………………………
第七节……………………………………
第八节……………………………………
第九节……………………………………
第十节……………………………………
第十一节……………………………………
第三章:名人逸事……………………………
第一节………………………………………
第二节………………………………………
第三节………………………………………
第四节………………………………………
第五节………………………………………
第六节………………………………………
第七节………………………………………
第八节………………………………………
第九节………………………………………
第十节………………………………………
第四章:大众脸谱……………………………
第一节………………………………………
第二节………………………………………
第三节………………………………………
第四节………………………………………
第五节………………………………………
第六节………………………………………
第七节………………………………………
第八节………………………………………
第九节………………………………………
第十节………………………………………
第十一节……………………………………
第十二节……………………………………
第十三节……………………………………
第五章 幽默小品……………………………
第一节………………………………………
第二节………………………………………
第三节………………………………………
第四节………………………………………
第五节………………………………………
第六节………………………………………
第七节………………………………………
第八节………………………………………
第九节………………………………………
第十节………………………………………
第六章:语言描写……………………………
第一节………………………………………
第二节………………………………………
第三节………………………………………
第四节………………………………………
第五节………………………………………
第六节………………………………………
第七节………………………………………
第八节………………………………………
第九节………………………………………
第十节………………………………………
第七章:动作描写……………………………
第一节………………………………………
第二节………………………………………
第三节………………………………………
第四节………………………………………
第五节………………………………………
第六节………………………………………
第七节………………………………………
第八节………………………………………
第九节………………………………………
第十节………………………………………
第八章:心理描写……………………………
第一节………………………………………
第二节………………………………………
第三节………………………………………
第四节………………………………………
第五节………………………………………
第九章 外貌描写……………………………
第一节………………………………………
第二节………………………………………
第三节………………………………………
第四节………………………………………
第五节………………………………………
第六节………………………………………
附录(参考答案) ……………………………
第一章………………………………………
第二章………………………………………
第三章………………………………………
第四章………………………………………
第五章………………………………………
第六章………………………………………
第七章………………………………………
第八章………………………………………
第九章………………………………………
第一章 中华儿女
第一节
Ⅰ.简介:天生的优势如果缺乏后天的努力,照样会一事无成;先天的不足却可以用后天的勤奋来弥补。身高只有1.5米的邓亚萍,凭借顽强的毅力和刻苦的训练,终于取得了成功,就充分说明了这一点。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Deng Yaping —–A Ping-Pong Star
Deng Yaping, a world champion in Ping-Pong, is a girl of 23 from Henan Province. At the age of 4, she learnt to play Ping-Pong under her father. In 1983, when she was 8 years old, she won the championship in the National competition of the amateur sports schools. In 1988 she entered the National Training Team. Since she was only 1.5 meters tall, she had made great efforts to improve her foot-work1. Her hard work proved that height didn’t count for much. She won the gold medals one after another. She won the gold medals in the 11th Asian Games’ Table Tennis Competition and the 41st World Table Tournament, and in both the 25th and the 26th Olympic Games she won several gold medals.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.foot-work:步法。
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请用英语写一段人物介绍,介绍少年体育明星孙淑伟。内容如下:
1.孙淑伟,男,14岁,广东人。
2.训练项目:跳水。
3.取得成绩:第11届亚运会冠军,第6届世界游泳锦标赛冠军(亚运会:the Asian Games,游泳锦标赛:swimming championships)
4.其他情况:从小喜欢游泳,8岁进广东省跳水队,13岁进国家队,一年后夺得第11届亚运会金牌;今年初获得第6届世界锦标赛冠军。
第二节
Ⅰ. 简介:桑兰早就有了“鞍马皇后”的美誉,但真正震撼世界的,还是她受伤后冷静面对现实,勇敢地迎接生活的挑战,始终以微笑面对生活的勇气和忍着巨痛坚持锻炼身体,争取早日生活自理的毅力。学习本文选取典型事例表现人物特点的写法。
Ⅱ.Passage:
When the 17-year-old Chinese athlete, Sang Lan was badly hurt in the gymnasium during the 4th World Goodwill Games, the doctors repeatedly asked Sang whether she understood what it means to her. Surprisingly, Sang remained quiet and calm. She responded1 to the doctors, “Yes, I understand.” She continued, “It does not matter, I can still be a useful person to society.”
On June 11, 1981, Sang Lan was born into a typical family in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. In May 1986, the 5-year-old girl enrolled in a gymnastic class at the Municipal School of physical Culture. At first, she was a “hard-ankled, flat-footed, typically-sprung2” kid. But following her coach’s strict demands, Sang would perform daily basic training exercises hundreds of times. “Sang Lan is a diligent3 girl with an unusual tolerance4 for pain—an ability that has enabled her to progress faster than other kids,” her coach says.
In 1994, Sang Lan joined the national gymnastic team. In 1997, after competing in both the National Gymnastic Championships and the 8th National Games, she won first place and was dubbed5 the “Queen of Vaulting”. But such titles were not enough to Sang. She wanted to be the world champion.
The 4th World Goodwill Games posed6 as the perfect opportunity for Sang to achieve her dreams. But now, many shake their heads, muttering7 what a shame it is that she should have received such an injury moments before her dreams could come true.
In November, Sang Lan was sent to one of the best rehabilitation 8centers in the United States—the Rask Rehabilitation Center. From then on, Sang Lan diligently performed her physical exercises for more than 10 hours a day, Gradually, she was able to move her body from her wheelchair to her bed and back. With the help a hand-splint9, she could independently eat, comb her hair, brush her teeth, write, use a computer keyboard, dress herself, and control her wheelchair so that she may “stroll10” about her room. Sang could even use her elbows to lift the upper part of her body from the wheelchair. At the time, the strong girl said, “Although the doctor told me that it was unlikely that I would ever stand up again, I’ve never given up hope for myself…ever. I believe that there is a great possibility that a new medicine will be found to treat my injuries. I do not believe I will be paralyzed11 forever.”
Sang’s smiling face has been widely publicized12 in the United States. Once someone asked her how she was able to keep smiling after such a terrible tragedy. Sang responded, “ Well, why not face your life with a smile? I’ve been paralyzed, so why should there be somebody else suffering for me?” Her courageous smile has moved America.
Former Us President Carter once went to the hospital to visit Sang Lan. He encouraged her to continue being strong, and he expressed President Clinton’s sincerest sympathies.
On the evening of December31, 1998, Sang Lan , dressed in an orange down jacket with a Chinese flag printed in the front, appeared as a distinguished guest at the crowded Times Square. When the bell rang for the New Year, she and Mr.Giuliani, the mayor of New York, pressed the 1999-countdown button. Sang is the first foreign guest to have the honor since1991. Mayor Giuliani said in his speech, “Ms. Sang Lan is a model of bravery. It is she who will bring the world together when we welcome the year 1999.”
Full of emotion13, Sang Lan said, “I’ve never regretted being a gymnast. I’ve only just begun a new living style, one that I have never known before. I will not let down14 all those who have cared about me. I will continue doing my physical exercises, studying, and improving my special skills so that I may be a useful person to society and live as a normal human being.”
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.respond:作答、回答
2.typically-sprung:典型的青春期的
3.diligent:勤勉的、勤奋的、用功的
4.tolerance:忍受,坚韧性
5.dub:(以某种称号)授予
6.pose:形成,成为
7.mutter:轻声低语,咕哝
8.rehabilitation:恢复
9.hand-splint:夹板
10.stroll:在…溜达
11.paralyze:瘫痪
12.publicize:宣传;公布
13.emotion:感情,情绪
14.let down:使失望;辜负
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请用英语写一篇文章,介绍当代青年学习的榜样,自强不息的残疾人张海迪。要点如下:
1.五岁时患重病,高位截瘫。
2.以顽强的毅力与疾病作斗争,热心帮助他人。
3.自学了英、法、德等多门外语。自学完了大学课程和研究生课程,拿到了硕士学位。
4.翻译了《海边诊所》等多部英文小说。自己创作了至少三本书。
第三节
Ⅰ.简介:医护人员被称为“白衣天使”,他们的职责是救死扶伤,精湛的医术和高尚的道德情操是他们的立身之本。下文正是从上述两个方面对万大夫进行了描述。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Dr. Wan Chunfa is vice director of the surgery1 section at the outpatient2 department of the Shanghai Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. He is well known for having treated many difficult and complicated cases.
In the 1960s, Dr .Wan was engaged in human-anatomy3 research in the Shanghai No .2 Army Medical College. He studied for over ten years under Shen Chuqiao, a famous doctor of traditional Chinese medicine in Shanghai. In his 30 years of clinical practices, Wan has treated many serious cases. Dr. Wan is especially known for his treatment of hemorrhoids4 and fistulas5. Patients suffering from rectal6 bleeding are cured and can get about freely the day after they receive Dr. Wan’s painless injection therapy7. For patients with severe hemorrhoids, Dr. Wan uses acupuncture8. Wan Chunfa has accumulated9 rich experience in acupuncture, which he performs with exceptional accuracy10, taking into consideration the neural11 system and channel-point locations as well as the muscular12 functions. Dr. Wan is highly acclaimed13 by his patients for his exquisite 14medical skills. Careful, earnest, and meticulous15, Dr. Wan has removed foreign bodies from patients’ unhealed16 wounds with his adroit17 hands, and once he removed a three-centimeter fishbone from a patient’s anus18.
Many patients and their families like to think of Wan Chunfa as their family doctor, and Wan treats his patient like family members and shares their worries. In the past ten years he has served as a member of the Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the Shanghai Association of Surgery and a member of the Shanghai Medical Cooperative Center for Prostatic19 Diseases.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.surgery:外科
2.outpatient:门诊病人 outpatient department:门诊部
3.human-anatomy:人体解剖
4.hemorrhoids:(常用复)痔
5.fistulas: (常用复)瘘,瘘管
6.rectal:(解)直肠的,近直肠的
7.therapy:理疗
8.acupuncture:针刺,针刺疗法
9.accumulated:(过去式)积累
10.accuracy:准确,精确,精确度
11.neural:神经的,神经系统的
12.muscular:肌肉的
13.acclaimed:(过去分词)受到赞扬
14.exquisite:精湛的
15.meticulous:过细的,细致的
16.unhealed:未愈合的
17.adroit:灵巧的
18.anus:肛门
19.prostatic:前列腺炎的
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请用英语写一篇短文,简单介绍你熟悉的一位大夫。
第四节
Ⅰ.简介:林巧稚大夫是我国妇产科学和现代护理科学的创始人。本文记叙了她在着两个方面所做的开创性的工作。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Lin Qiaozhi was born in Xiamen, Fujian Province on December 23rd, 1901. She received MD from Peking Union Medical College in 1929. She was professor and chairman of the Department of Obstetrics1 and Gynecology2, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. She was also the vice president of Chinese Academy of Medical Science.
In her early years, Lin was engaged in the study of intrauterine3 fetal4 respiration5. She made a thorough investigation on the occurrence and expansion of choriocarcinomas6 and the occurrence and treatment of women’s pelvic7 tuberculosis8. She had consummate9 medical skills and excellent medical morality10. She also made great contributions to the propagation11 of popular science and to the maternal12 and child health care. In 1955, she became Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. She died in 1983.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.obstetrics:(复)产科学,助产术
2.gynecology:(医)妇科学
3.intrauterine:子宫内的
4.fetal:胎儿的
5.respiration:呼吸
6.choriocarcinomas:卵巢癌
7.pelvic:骨盆的
8.tuberculosis:结核病
9.consummate:完美的
10.morality:道德,美德
11.propagation:普及,传播
12.maternal:母亲的
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下列提示,用英语写一篇短文,介绍中央电视台节目主持人孙小梅。
1.小时候喜爱音乐,拉过小提琴。16岁进北京广播学院学习。
2.主持中央电视台最短的两个节目《下周银屏》和《电视你我他》
特别注意向赵忠祥等老一辈主持人学习。非常喜欢主持人的工作。
第五节
Ⅰ.简介:解放前很长一段时间,我国的桥梁、铁路的设计和建设都被外国垄断。茅以升打破了这种垄断,设计建造了难度相当大的钱塘江大桥,并且为我国培养了不少桥梁和铁路专家。他的开创精神值得我们学习。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Mao Yisheng was a bridge engineering expert and educator. He was born in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. He graduated from Tangshan Technical Institute, Jiaotong University in 1916. He received MS from Cornell University, USA in 1917 and Ph.D from Carnegie Mellon University in 1920
In 1930s, he broke foreign monopoly1 and took charge of the design and organization of the construction of Qiantang Bridge, a double-deck railroad combine bridge with the foundation of 47.8 meters deep under complex natural conditions. The bridge was a significant achievement and became a milestone2 in China’s bridge history. He initiated3 elicitation4 method in education, devoted himself to education reform and trained many outstanding talents for bridge engineering. He was in charge of the China Academy of Railways Sciences for more than 30 years and made remarkable contributions to the development of railway science and technology. He was a pioneer in soil mechanics5 and an outstanding promoter6 of popular science. He died in 1989.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.monopoly:垄断,垄断权
2.milestone:里程碑
3.initiated:(过去式)创始
4.elicitation:引导,启发
5.mechanics:力学,机械学
6.promoter:创始人
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请用英语写一篇短文,介绍中国著名建筑师梁思成。要点如下:
1.1901年4月20日生于广东省新会。1923年毕业于清华大学。1927年在美国获理科硕士学位。1947年获普林斯顿大学荣誉博士学位。
2.1928年在东北大学创立建筑系。1946年在清华大学设立建筑系。
3.1949年以后积极参加北京城市建设工作,是人民英雄纪念碑和北京十大建筑的主要设计者之一。曾经任清华大学建筑系主任,培养出了许多优秀的建筑师。
第六节
Ⅰ.简介:中国人长期以来被称作“东亚病夫”,拿奥运金牌是新中国几代体育工作者的心愿。许海峰第一个圆了这个梦想,以致萨马兰奇说,许海峰夺冠的这一天,对于全体中国人来说,都是一个“很有纪念意义的一天”。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Xu Haifeng, marksman1, was born in Hexian county,Anhui Province on August 10,1957. He won the gold medal at men’s free pistol2 event at the 23rd Olympic Games in 1984.It was the first gold medal won by Chinese athletes in the history of Olympic Games.
In the shooting range3 in the Prado Recreation Area in Los Angeles, 80 athletes from all over the world were taking part in the men’s free pistol event in front of a huge crowd spectators4 and journalists. In the beginning, the journalists flocked5 behind world champion Ragnar Skanaker of Sweden. However, as the competition proceeded6, their attention was drawn by a Chinese athlete in the No.40 position. It was Xu Haifeng. At this time, Xu still had his last 10 shot to fire. He marked one ten rings and two consecutive7 nine rings. Then he faltered8 a little in the noise of the journalists and scored lower rings with the next two shots. A sigh rose among the spectators. Xu sat down and closed his eyes for a while. As he took up his pistol again, he was completely calmed and scored nine and ten rings in a row. Before firing the last shot, he raised and put down the gun twice as all spectators held their breath and watched him. Then he pulled the trigger9 decisively10—ten rings.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.marksman:神枪手,射击手
2.pistol:手枪
3.shooting range:射击场
4.spectators:观众
5.flocked:(过去式)聚集
6.proceeded:(过去式)进行
7.consecutive:连续的
8.faltered:(过去式)犹豫,踌躇
9.trigger:扳机
10.decisively:果断地
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请用英语写一篇短文,介绍原辽宁省大连市市长薄熙来。
第七节
Ⅰ.简介:鲁迅是文化战线的一面旗帜,毛泽东给予他极高的评价。本文只简单地介绍了他在文学方面的成就。特别是他第一个用白话创作小说这一开先河的贡献。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Lu Xun is a pen name of Zhou Shuren. He was a writer. He wrote stories, poetry, essays, literary criticism and literary history. He is called the father of modern Chinese literature. His first story “A Madman’s Diary” is considered the first story written in modern Chinese. The classic Chinese literature by Lao Zi and Confucius for example, were written in literary Chinese which is different from the language spoken by everyday folks. Any scholar worth his salt1 would have written in this literary style. Lu Xun chose to begin writing the way people talk. At the same time, he was well educated and learned and used the language very colorfully, and had a large vocabulary. In no way can what he did be considered “a dambing down”. His stories were published in literary journals2 of the time and were then collected and published as books.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.worth his salt:称职,胜任
2.journals:杂志,期刊
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请用英语写一篇短文,简单介绍雷锋的生平事迹。
第八节
Ⅰ.简介:中国过去被称为贫油国,工业生产和日常生活一直靠“洋油”。李四光根据自己的研究,坚信中国有油。在他的理论指导下,相继在大庆和胜利找到了石油,结束了中国依赖“洋油”的历史。本文是对他的理论和生平的简介。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Li Siguang was a geologist. He was born in Huanggang, Hubei Province. His nationality was Mongolian. He received M.sc and Sc.D from Birmingham University, UK in 1919 and 1927. He was one of the founders of the Geological Society of China.
In his early days, Li made intensive studies on fasulinides from the viewpoint of mechanics and stratigraphics1 of China. He discovered the presence of Quaternary2 glaciation3 in China. His studies on the crustal4 structure and crustal movement were based on the mechanics consideration and led to the concept of “ tectonic5 system”, such as the Neocathaysian and Cathaysian system in China and the establishment of a new discipline “geomechanics6”. With the application of geomechanics, he found three trending belts occurring within the territory of China. This led to the discovery and successful exploration of gas and oil fields in Daqing and Shengli regions as well as the distribution of other mineral resources. With the combination of detecting active tectonic systems and measurements of stress fields in earth crust, he made earthquake predictions possible. In his late years, he published “Astronomy, Geology, Paleontology7” which produced penetrating8 influence on the overlapping fields of different scientific disciplines. He contributed greatly to the development of geological education and geoscience9 in particular and geology in general. He died on April 29,1971.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.stratigraphics:地层学
2.Quaternary:(地)第四纪,第四纪的
3.glaciation:冰河作用,冰蚀
4.crustal:外壳的,地壳的
5.tectonic:(地)地壳构造的
6.geomechanics:(复用作单)地球力学;地质力学
7.paleontology:古生物学
8.penetrating:深刻的
9.geoscience:地球科学
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下面的提示,用英语写一篇短文,介绍数学家吴文俊。
1.吴文俊,数学家。出生于上海。
2.1940年毕业于上海交通大学。1949年在法国获博士学位。
3.1957年当选为中国科学院院士。中国科学院系统工程研究所名誉主任。
4.今年获得国家科学技术奖一等奖。
5.研究方向为应用数学。
第九节
Ⅰ.简介:和写作家一样,写画家也必然要涉及到他的作品,同时要用到许多美术方面的专有词汇。在阅读的过程中,要注意积累描写不同职业的人物时的不同词汇,扩大自己的词汇量,以后碰到写同一类型的人物时,写起来就会得心应手。
Ⅱ.Passage:
In the early 1980s, a young man went on a journey to the Qinghai-Tibet plateau1 and discovered the beauty of this boundless, isolated2, and silent land. The man, Wu Changjiang, is now an associate professor in the Block Painting Department of the Central Academy of Fine Arts. Wu Changjiang’s paintings are noted for their freshness, harmony3, and mellowness4. His paintings are simple yet as thought-provoking as poetry.
Wu Changjiang believes that the rules of art cannot be changed. The only thing that an artist can do, he says, is to find the rules, follow them, and make good use of them. Wu also believes that there is no clear dividing line between true-to-life painting and impressionism5 or abstraction6. His paintings are well proportioned7 and balanced between black and white, movement and stillness, dark and light, and cold and warm colors. Wu Changjiang has studied the strong points of others to enrich his artistic creation. His watercolor paintings combine the techniques of Western watercolor painting and those of traditional Chinese painting. In the Vast Grassland, a Tibetan man rides a horse, followed by two other horses. The man is crossing a marsh8 with a small pond that reflects him on his galloping9 horse. Yet this painting is different from similar depictions10 of the Native- American areas in the United States and of the grassland in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region because it has the original taste of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The expression and the shape are harmonious and accurate, forming a special feature of the artistic world of Wu Changjiang.
From the great number of sketches11 by Wu Changjiang one can sense that the painter has devoted himself to experiencing life, and the viewer feels refreshed upon seeing his sketches. The simple lines are enough to depict a vivid picture, and from the shaking lines, one can feel the intense emotion of the painter.
Wu Changjiang uses a wide range of topics for his art, and he is meticulous12 in his drawing. Each of his works has its own theme and features its own characteristics. No wonder his paintings have been awarded at home and abroad and collected by art galleries13 in China and Japan and museums in Britain and the United States.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.plateau:高原
2.isolated:孤立的,隔绝的
3.harmony:协调,和谐
4.mellowness:柔和,圆润
5.impressionism:(绘画、文艺等方面的)印象主义;印象派
6.abstraction:抽象派
7.proportioned:匀称的,成比例的
8.marsh:沼泽,湿地
9.galloping:飞跑的
10.depiction:描绘,描写
11.sketch:速写,素描
12.meticulous:细致的
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下面的提示,用英语写一篇短文,介绍著名青年歌手刘洁。
1.1997年在电影《爱情麻辣烫》中扮演角色。后在电视连续剧中扮演主角—一位歌手。
2.发行过的专辑有:Have You Changed After Being Away for so Long? You Are Happy,So Am I, Whoever You Are, Men等。
3.喜爱运动,特别喜欢打台球(billiards)和保龄球(bowling)
第十节
Ⅰ.简介:孔子是我国古代思想家、哲学家、教育家。儒家思想的创始人。若论对中国几千年封建社会的影响,少有出其右者。本文简介了他的国、君思想。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Confucius1 was born five hundred and fifty years before Christ2. Unlike Jesus Christ, he did not bring word of God to people. He was a clever teacher and a philosopher, looking for truth and wisdom. Most of his teaching was about life in the world.
Confucius was very keen3 to give people good rules. Someone asked him, “What does a country need?” Confucius answered, “Enough food, a good army and a good leader.” The person then asked, “Which one is the most important?” Confucius answered, “An army is not very important. All men must die, so food is not the most important. But if the leader of the country is not good, then everything will be bad.”
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.Confucius:孔子
2.Christ:耶稣基督
3.keen:热心的,渴望的
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请用英语写一篇短文,介绍中国现任国家主席,中央军委主席江泽民。
第二章 域外名人
第一节
Ⅰ.简介:一个成功的男人后面必定有一位伟大的女人。探险家Robert E.Peary为了实现他到达北极的梦想,经过了二十年的努力。在这二十年中,他和妻子经历过多少次生离死别。这就是探险家与一般人不同的地方,也应该是写作时的重点。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Robert E. Peary was a great US explorer. He reached the North Pole in 1809. For more than 20 years, he tried to reach the pole. During much of this time, he kept a diary of his trips. A diary is the writing of person that tells about his or her life day by day. Here is what Peary wrote in his diary on the day he reached the pole.
“The pole at last! My dream for 20 years! Mine at last! I cannot bring myself to believe it. It all seemed so simple…”
This page was written on the biggest day in Robert E. Peary’s life. But the diary also tells about the hard times he had. Many times during his travels, Peary had to say goodbye to his wife. Once he wrote:
“Another goodbye and there have been so many! Strong brave woman. You have lived with me through all my hard work. This life is a dog’s life1… Will I succeed? Will I return?”
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.lead (sb.)a dog’s life:(使某人)过着受折磨的日子
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请用英语写一篇短文,介绍航海家哥伦布,内容如下:
1.出生于Genoa,并在那里长大。
2.年轻时在地中海航行过几次。24岁时到了Lisbon,在那里一边工作一边继续航海。
3.他相信一直向西航行就可以到达东方。发现了美洲大陆。这是人类历史上最伟大的地理发现。
第二节
Ⅰ.简介:英国王室成员始终是英国、整个欧洲、甚至全世界关注的焦点。戴安娜王妃死于媒体的围追堵截,还未成年的威廉小王子也不能象其他的孩子一样尽享童年的乐趣。不过现在他已长大成人,不但取得了良好的学业成绩,而且成熟了许多。
Ⅱ.Passage: Prince William
Prince William is the first son of Prince Charles and Princess Diana of the United Kingdom. His full title is His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales. He was born in London on June 21,1982. This year he celebrated his 18th birthday. This is a big occasion1 because this shows that he has grown up and is ready for university! People in the United Kingdom give him a lot of attention. He was on every newspaper’s front-page in June!
Prince William is quite handsome. He is tall, his hair is blond, and his eyes are blue. He is also left-handed. He takes after2 his beautiful mother, Princess Diana. But his younger brother, Harry takes after their father, Prince Charles.
Prince William loves shooting. He also enjoys skiing, tennis, soccer, rowing on the Thames River, and swimming. He is an important member of water polo team at Eton College. He likes casual clothes3; he enjoys dancing and driving his car. He spends his spare time with friends, watching films or football matches. His favorite hobby is painting. He is excellent at painting.
Prince William is willing to take part in anything that a normal young man would do. This includes breaking the rules to have fun. He is very honest to his friends. Some people say that Prince William has some bad friends. But which schoolchild does not?
Prince William was once shy in public, especially before the media4. But he can do better now. Some newspaper reported that Prince William is romantically linked with the famous American pop singer Britney Spear, but he says that it is not true. And when asked if he has a girlfriend, he says, “I’d like to keep my private life private.”
Prince William is a very good student at school. He studies history, geography, art, chemistry, physics, maths, English literature, Spanish, French, music and PE. He has been doing so well that his marks are all As and Bs.
This summer Prince William is going to graduate from Eton College. This is a school for Britain’s elite5 young people. It is said that any boy leaving Eton today wants to be a leader tomorrow and be successful. The days at Eton is one of the happiest times in Prince William’s life. However, his mother Diana, Princess of Wales, died during this period. When Princess Diana was alive, she always tried to give her son as normal a life as possible. It seems that her effort is paid off. Now William has a very balanced life. He was able to hold himself together through his parent’s divorce6 and the death of his mother. He is considered a positive role model for the UK and family.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.occasion:场合
2.take after:(面貌、性格方面)象(自己的父母)
3.casual clothes:便装
4.media:媒体
5.elite:上层人物
6.divorce:离婚
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请你根据电视、报纸等媒体的报道,写一篇100字左右的短文,介绍美国现任总统乔治W.布什(George W.Bush).
第三节
Ⅰ.简介:凭借百折不挠的执着信念和坚定的信心,Elizabeth Blackwell终于实现了自己的理想,从而有幸成为世界上第一位女医生。
Ⅱ.Passage:
In early days no medical college took a woman student. Elizabeth Blackwell, however, was determined to become a doctor. The young American wrote again and again to a number of medical colleges, asking if she could be enrolled1, but each time the answer was NO.
Then one day, to her surprise, she got a letter from the dean of a college in Geneva, which said YES.
At first Geneva College, like the other colleges, was not willing to enroll Liza. But later the important people of that college learned that Liza’s application had the support of a famous doctor, and they were afraid to offend 2that man.
So the dean decided to play a trick by turning the matter over to the student’s general meeting of the college, thinking that the students would be the last to agree to take Liza.
When the student body met, most students took no interest in the matter. Of the rest, some considered the young American’s idea interesting and some thought by having Liza they could be proud of their college training the world’s first woman doctor. Very soon the students all agreed to accept Elizabeth.
The dean of Geneva College was of course very sorry to learn this, but seeing that he could do nothing to keep Elizabeth out, he gave in.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.enroll:招收、使入学
2.offend:冒犯、触怒
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下面的提示,用英语写一篇短文,介绍世界上第一位女内科医生Elizabeth Blackwell.
1.1821年生于英国。十岁时去纽约定居。
2.她的理想是作一名医生。为此向多家医学院写信求助,费城的一位医生接受了她。
3.1849年去巴黎进修,想作一名外科医生。
4.回到美国后,与他人一起创办了第一所妇女儿童医院。
第四节
Ⅰ. 简介:如何写好名人简介,本文是一篇很好的范文。伽利略对自然科学的研究作出了许多重大的贡献,在这篇100多字的简介中,作者只选取了最能代表其成就的两件事情来写。注意学习这种写法。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Galileo graduated from the University of Pisa in 1588, and stayed there to teach maths. At the age of twenty-five, he made his second great discovery which earned him a great many enemies. This discovery was the theory of falling objects; the speed of falling objects doesn’t depend on their weight. But more than that, he showed that a true scientist must test and prove every rule, and accepting what somebody else tells him.
The professors didn’t understand him. Luckily for Galileo, some friends came to help him. So Galileo could continue his experiments and put up1 new scientific theories and made a lot of inventions. The most important of his inventions was a telescope2. Galileo’s telescope was not the first, but it was the best ever made until that time.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.put up:提出、建立
2.telescope:望远镜
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下面的提示,写一篇介绍伽利略的短文。
1.伽利略是著名的意大利物理学家和天文学家。
2.1564年出生于比萨。
3.在比萨斜塔上做了著名的自由落体实验。
4.他认为太阳是宇宙的中心,行星都围绕太阳旋转。
5.他利用望远镜发现月球上也有高山和峡谷,银河由无数颗星星构成。
6.1642年去世。
第五节
Ⅰ. 简介:写作家必然要涉及到他的作品,最简单的作法就是介绍其代表作。另外,每个作家都有其独特的写作风格,介绍其写作风格也是写作家时必不可少的。本文是这种写法的典范。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Daniel Defoe is regarded as one of the greatest novelists in England. When he was young, he served as a soldier and had been to Spain, Italy, France and Germany. At the same time, he went in for1 politics and he was put into prison twice. It was not until he was nearly sixty that he began to write the famous novel Robinson Crusoe, which was published in May, 1709. Its fame spread so rapidly that the story became popular very quickly, and was followed by hundreds of translated versions2.
Robinson Crusoe can be divided into three parts. The first part is about Crusoe’s three voyages, the second about his hunting, hiding in caves, farming and his hard struggles against nature on a small island, the third about the things which happened after his return from the island. The second part is the body of the novel, in which Robinson’s character is fully shown.
Defoe wrote his novels in a simple style3 and the language is easy to understand. His novel writing set a milestone4 for the modem English novels.
In the later part of his life he was in poor health and he lived very poorly. To run away from his creditors5, he had to leave his native land and died on April 24th, 1731.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.go in for:从事
2.version:版本
3.style:风格
4.milestone:里程碑
5.creditor:债主
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请用英语写一篇短文,介绍著名作家福克纳。要点如下:
1.1897年9月25日生于密西西比州。
2.27岁出版第一本书。53岁获诺贝尔文学奖。
3.1972年7月6日去世。
4.一生绝大部分时间在密西西比度过。被认为是同时代最主要的作家。
第六节
Ⅰ. 简介:这篇短文看似平铺直叙,实际上给我们描写了一位挚爱音乐的钢琴演奏家的奋斗史和他对音乐的热爱之情。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Garlos Al Mahal was born in Manila in 1950, and at the age of two weeks he was taken by his father, a musician, to the United States by sea. He spent his first ten years in the American Southland where he attended school. Between the ages of 10 and 18, he travelled in the south and western Atlantic areas, lived in Florida and graduated from his school in 1968. Early in his life he had great interest in musical instruments and in 1965, he learned to play the piano quickly an expert on it. Since his graduation from Florida State University in 1973, he has been a famous pianist. He is not married, saying that his music should come first.
Ⅲ.Exercise:
请用英语写一篇短文,介绍著名钢琴家莫扎特或“钢琴王子”李云迪。
第七节
Ⅰ. 简介:和前面几篇描写作家不同,这篇文章对海明威的一生作了概括的叙述,并对他的主要作品作了介绍,以便读者进一步了解他的作品的深层含义。体会他的写作风格及这种风格形成的原因。这是一篇人物生平简介的范文。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Ernest Miller Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois in the year 1899. He was the son of a doctor. And it was his father who first introduced him to the outdoor life-hunting, fishing, sports: all those things that he loved so much. When he was in high school, he played on the baseball and football teams, but he also began to write.
After he graduated he left home and went to Kansas City. He didn’t go to college but instead got a job as a reporter on the Kansas City Star. Working for this newspaper, he developed his famous journalistic1 style: simple, direct, and objective2.
When the war broke out in 1914, Hemingway wanted to become a soldier, but he was rejected because of an old eye problem. Not wanting to miss the action, he went to Europe anyway and served as an ambulance3 driver for the Red Cross. In 1918, shortly before the end of the war, he was wounded and had to return to the States. He didn’t stay long, however. As soon as he was better, he was back in Europe, this time as a reporter for the Toronto Star. During the early 1920s, he lived in Paris and got to know many other American writers and artists, including Gertrude Stein and Ezra Pound.
In 1925, he published his first collection of short stories, called In Our Time. Most of the stories were really about his childhood. A year later, his first two novels appeared –Torrents of Spring and The Sun Also Rises. His second novel, The Sun Also Rises, is still his best novel I think. This book was about that lonely, hopeless “lost generation” of Americans that he knew in Europe.
Three years later, his fourth novel, A Farewell4 to Arms, made him famous throughout the world. This love story was about an American ambulance driver and a British nurse.
During the 1930s,he continued to write short stories and also produced two books about subjects he greatly loved. Death in the Afternoon was about bullfighting5, and The Green Hills of Africa was about big game hunting.
When the Second World War began, Hemingway again returned to Europe as a reporter. He was present at most of the important battles of that war and his experiences became the basis of his book, Across the River and Into the Trees. This book was not very successful, and many people said that Hemingway was losing his old magic.
But in 1952,he wrote a short novel which is one of his best: The Old Man and the Sea. The book tells the story of an old Cuban fisherman, but is really about man against nature. For this book, he won the Pulitzer Prize. And two years later, he received the Nobel Prize for Literature.
In 1961,sick and unable to live the active he loved, Hemingway killed himself with one of his own shotguns. So ended the life of the man who has had one of the greatest influences on American literature in this century.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.journalistic:报刊特有的
2.objective:客观的
3.ambulance:救护车
4.farewell:再见,永别
5.bullfighting:斗牛
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请按下面提供的条件,写一篇有关欧•亨利生平的短文。
1.欧•亨利(O•Henry)是William Sidney Porter 的笔名。
2.生于1862年,卒于1910年。
3.出身贫穷,没有上过学。
4.三年监狱生活中学会写作,释放后,投身写作。
5.一生作品300多篇,深受人们喜爱。
6.是美国著名短篇小说家。
第八节
Ⅰ. 简介:建筑也是一门艺术,也要遵循艺术创作的一般原则。但艺术创作的灵魂是创新,如果一味地继承前人的成果,Frank Lloyd Wright也就不会成为美国最伟大的建筑师。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Frank Lloyd Wright probably is the greatest architect1 that the United States has ever produced. He was very talented and had a natural ability to design buildings. His buildings were not only beautiful, but they were also functional. They fit their purposes very well. Wright’s churches, for example, make people feel like thinking and praying. His office buildings make people enjoy working, and his houses make people feel comfortable at home. However, Frank Lloyd Wright’s beautiful, functional buildings are not the only reason that he is famous. There is another reason.
Frank Lloyd Wright is called the greatest American Architect because he started an American style in architecture2. Wright was really European, not American. Wright’s buildings do not look like old European buildings. They have their own style. Wright’s ideas about style are still used in the United States and in other parts of the world.
The most important idea in Frank Lloyd Wright’s Style of Architecture is that a building must fit its purpose and the land around it. His houses are often called “grass-land houses” because their lines are similar to the lines on the grassland. Both the lines of the grassland and the lines of Wright’s houses are parallel3 to the horizon, the place where earth and sky seem to meet. They are horizontal lines. Most European style houses, in contrast, have many vertical4 lines that form 90°angles with the horizon.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.architect:建筑师
2.architecture:建筑
3.parallel:平行的
4.vertical:垂直的
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请用英语写一篇短文,介绍艺术大师毕加索的少年时代。要点如下:
1.毕加索是他们家许多堂姐妹中唯一的男孩子。
2.他父亲很早就发现他能成为一名艺术家。他小时候经常一个人练习绘画。
3.他父亲的业余爱好是画鸽子,将自己的绘画技巧教给了他的儿子。
父子俩经常在地中海边散步,或者在市场上溜达。
第九节
Ⅰ.简评:从事任何一种工作都要遵循一些规则,但大多数人将这些规则看成是老生常谈、陈词滥调。Johnny Miler正是严格遵循了他自己定下的这些规则,才成了无人能比的优秀高尔夫球手。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Johnny Miller is tall and slim. He has a head of blond hair. He has good looks. His golf swing1 is also beautiful. He can drive a ball very, very far. But it is his concentration that has made him a star. In 1974 he won three straight tournaments2. Nobody ever did that.
“Every time I draw the club back,” says Miller,“I know I’m going to hit solid3. The putts 4 seem to fly the putter and go right into the middle of the hole. It makes the game look easy.”
Miller started as a teenager. He came up fast.“When I finished second in the Masters, I knew,” he recalls, “ that I could play with the big boys.”
He thinks a golfer’s game is his head. He writes little rules for himself on a piece of brown envelope. “ Take the club back slowly.” “ You must keep your head still.” “Make sure you are comfortable before starting the swing.” He admits this sounds “corny5,” but he feels each saying has a purpose.“I believe the brain is a computer,” says Miller.” If you feed things into the brain, it sends them to the body. All my sayings are positive. They are commands.”
Miller seems aloof6 on the golf course. “ I must concentrate. I must think out each shot. That way I keep from falling into bad habits.” If his concentration does not fail him, Miller is sure he will go on to become an all-time –golfing great.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.swing:(手臂的)挥舞
2.tournament:锦标赛、联赛
3.solid:全部地
4.putt:(使高尔夫进洞的)轻轻一击
5.corny:(俚)陈词滥调的、过时的
6.aloof:冷淡的
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下列提示,用英语写一篇短文,介绍著名流行歌手迈克尔●杰克逊。
1.父亲在一家钢铁厂工作,母亲在一家大型商场上班,父母也都是音乐家。父亲很早就发现了他的音乐天赋。
2.5岁开始演艺生涯。经过刻苦训练,事业渐渐有了发展。
3.11岁时,他们兄弟的第一张专辑卖了一百万张。后来,在人口只有三百万的新西兰,他们的专辑卖了一百万张。
4.他虽然创作了许多歌曲,但他始终保持着清醒的头脑,他从不认为自己比别人优秀得多。
第十节
Ⅰ. 简介:培根是伟大的哲学家,但他的作品和他对科学研究的观点也对后世产生了巨大的影响。学习这种筛选写作素材的方法。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Francis Bacon, one of the most important philosophers of England, was born in London and educated at Cambridge University. When he was only 15, he went to France to work for the English ambassador1。Two years later he went up to England to study law. At the age of twenty-three he was elected to parliament2. His ideas about how scientists should study things in nature help to bring about the modern way of thinking, called the scientific method.
One of the Bacon’s best-known books was his Essays. Each essay was a short piece of writing in which he tried to give a lesson by discussing sides of a subject such as studying, conversation, friends and healthful living. In many of his books, Bacon explained how scientists should study things as they really exist in nature and then try to figure out what caused a particular thing to be as it is. Later, by doing experiment, the scientist could see that any one called inductive3reasoning, is used by all the scientists today, but it was new in Bacon’s time.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.ambassador:大使
2.parliament:议会
3.inductive:归纳
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下列提示,用英语写一篇短文,介绍美国第一任总统乔治●华盛顿。
1.年轻时学习过拉丁语,阅读英国文学,对社会的基本行为准则感兴趣。
2.上学期间对数学有兴趣。在接受正规教育方面,不如美国早期的其他几位总统。
3.不善言谈,不善于在国会进行辩论。
4.没有学习过法语,不能和法国领导人直接交谈,所以从未到过欧洲。
第十一节
Ⅰ.简介:马可●波罗发现了古老的中国文明,当时的欧洲人以为他在胡编乱造。时至今日,仍然有人认为他的游记是凭想象写出来的。读一读下面着篇短文,就不难理解人们为什么会这样想了。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Marco Polo was a boy of about seventeen. Once, his father and uncle had just returned to their family in Venice after a long journey. They talked about strange and beautiful lands in the East. They brought back gold and jewels.
Shortly after, the Polo brothers asked him to take a trip with them to the East. So it was how Marco Polo’s journey began. During three years of travelling to distant China, he saw sights that were almost unbelievable to a boy from Italy. He met people who had strange ways of living. Some people spoke languages that he did not understand. At last they reached the continent of Asia.
This was in the year 1257. The emperor made a great feast1 in honour of the Polos and asked Marco to live in his court. Marco Polo learned to read, write and speak new languages.
Once the emperor sent him to inspect2 western and southern parts of his empire. Marco Polo was given many soldiers and servants for his journey.
Marco saw paper made by the Chinese. People in China had even discovered how to print on paper; they had many books and even used paper money! They burned little black rocks for heating – later called coal.
After three years, he wrote a book about his travels, which most people in Europe did not believe. Only many years later did the world know that this man had discovered a great eastern country.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.feast:(盛宴)
2.inspect:参观,视察
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下面的提示,用英语写一篇短文,介绍世界护理学的创始人南丁格尔。
1.出生于一个富裕之家,小时候学习过音乐和绘画,阅读了大量的书籍,和父母到过许多地方旅行。
2.小时候就乐于帮助病人,认为这既是我们的职责,又是一种乐趣。理想是做一名护士。
3.曾经去法国和德国学习护理,回英国后开办了一所女子护理学校。
4.1854年战时与38 名护士一起去了前线,用自己的钱为伤病员买了衣服、床和药品。战争结束后受到了女王的嘉奖。
5.写了一本关于大众健康方面的书,成立了南丁格尔护士学校。去世时90岁。
6.今天的护士节就是为了纪念她而设立的。
第三章 名人逸事
第一节
Ⅰ.简介:下面提到的这位美国总统,小时候对待别人的恶作剧,到底是大智若愚呢还是体现了他善良的本性,相信你读过后会找到答案。
Ⅱ.Passage:
William Henry Harrison, the president of the United States,was born in a small town. As a boy, he was quiet and shy. In fact, he was such a quiet boy that everyone thought he was stupid. The people of the town liked to play him tricks. For example, they often put a nickel1 and a dime2 before him and then they all laughed at him.
One day, a woman took pity on him. She asked, "Why do you never choose a dime and always choose a nickel instead? Do you know that a nickel is worth much less than a dime?”
“Of course, I know it,” William answered slowly. “But if I choose the dime, they won’t play the trick on me any more.”
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.nickel:(美国和加拿大的)五分镍币
2.dime:(美国和加拿大的)一角银币
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下面的小故事,用英语写一篇短文。
有一天,杰弗逊在一家旅馆门前下了马,手里拿着鞭子进了旅馆,要一个房间。老板上下打量了一下他,以为他是一个农民,就没有给他房间。于是杰弗逊牵着马去了另外一家旅馆。他走后,一个人告诉老板,刚才那个人是美国副总统。老板赶紧叫人去那家旅馆请他回来,但他说:“老板的好意我心领了.既然他没有房间让一个农民住,也就不会有房间给副总统了。”
第二节
Ⅰ.简介:在历史的发展进程中,许多事情都源于偶然事件。如果拿破仑当时尝试了Fulton的发明成果,今天的世界会是什么样子呢?
Ⅱ.Passage:
Napoleon Bonaparte was the master of Europe. He wanted to be the master of the world. But he had to first win England, and to win England he had to cross the English Channel in great force. What he needed badly were ships which could travel faster than the British warships.
Just at that time, there came an American inventor, Robert Fulton by name, to France with his inventions. Fulton had invented a way of propelling1 ships by steam instead of by sail. He had also worked out an under-water boat. It was Napoleon’s God-given chance. He wanted very much to try Fulton’s idea. Then he decided against it.
If Fulton’s invention should fail, Napoleon feared he would be the laughing-stock2 of Europe. How could he be laughed at, he thought to himself. So he refused to pay the price of a laugh, and threw away his chance to be the master of the world.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.propel:推进、推动
2.laughing-stock:笑柄
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下面的提示,用英语写一篇短文,介绍世界著名政治家、英国前首相邱吉尔。
1.出生于1874年11月30日,系长子。
2.以在二战中领导英国人民抗击纳粹德国的勇气和执着而闻名。
3.1904年加入自由党。1940年成为英国首相。二战中成功地取得了美国的支持。
4.1965年死于中风。享年90岁。
第三节
Ⅰ.简介:下面这篇短文记叙了一位技艺高超的大夫。整篇文章用词平实,娓娓道来,从平凡中体现了这位大夫的高超水平和他所做的开创性的工作。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Danlie Hale William became a doctor in Chicago in 1883. After graduation, he taught at Northwestern University’s medical school. He was asked by the president of the United States, Grover Cleveland, to go to Washington, D. C. to head the Freemen’s Hospital. It was one of the few hospitals for blacks in the country.
He went back to Chicago to help set up Provident Hospital. Before it opened, Chicago’s black doctors could not practise in hospital. They had to attend patients at home. So operations were performed on dining tables. Dr William also helped to set up a training school for black nurses.
In 1893, he operated on a man who was dying from a stab1 wound in his heart. Such a wound had always meant death. But Dr William tried to save the man. Without X-rays or blood transfusion2 he opened the man’s chest and sewed up his heart. The operation succeeded. The man lived.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.stab:刺伤
2.blood transfusion:输血
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下面的提示,请你用英语写一篇短文,介绍Charles R.Drew医生。
1.他是美国纽约哥伦比亚大学医学专业的学生。
2.第一个倡议建立血库以挽救失血过多的病人的生命。
3.二战时是红十字会建立的第一个血库的负责人。
4.当时黑人和白人的血液被保存在不同的地方。
5.战后和几位医生去开会时遇车祸,而最近的医院中只有白人的血液,终因失血过多而死亡。
第四节
Ⅰ. 简介:在这篇文章中,萧伯纳既给我们展示了他的才华,也教给了我们对待这类人的最好办法。
Ⅱ.Passage: George Bernard Shaw
A very anobbish1 woman met George Bernard Shaw, the famous English playwright2, at a garden party one afternoon in London.
She was the sort of woman who was only interested in people who were rich or famous, and she was very eager to have Shaw as a guest in her own home so that she could have something to boast3 about among her friends.
One day she sent her driver in a black Royce to Shaw’s home with the following invitation:
Lay Whitley Fallwell will be at home on Thursday, the 14 of December from 4 to 6.The following reply form Shaw came back immediately: So will Mr G.B. Shaw.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.anobbish:势利的
2.playwright:剧作家
3.boast:夸耀
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下面的提示,用英语写一篇短文,介绍英国著名剧作家萧伯纳。
1.他是二十世纪英国最著名的剧作家。1856年生于爱尔兰。小时候很少得到父母亲的关心和爱护。
2.研究过马克思的《资本论》。
3.1898年与一位富有的妇女结婚,一直共同生活到1943年她去世。
4.在1915年前就已经赢得了国际声誉。1925年获诺贝尔文学奖。
5.1932年来中国,成为鲁迅的朋友。
6.1950年11月2日去世。
第五节
Ⅰ. 简介:惠特曼和林肯都是美国历史上的著名人物,两个人既有许多共同点,也有许多不同。本文采用对比的写法,以两人的共同点为线索组织全文,使得文章的结构非常紧凑。体会这种写法。
Ⅱ.Passage:
In earlier days few people read Whitman’s poems. One person who did read them was Abraham Lincoln, who then a country lawyer. He liked the strength and honesty of Whitman’s words. He often read them to visitors in his office. Whitman didn’t know Lincoln, but he wrote a long article about slavery and presidency1. Whitman was against slavery. He wanted to see a new kind of president, not a professional politician, but an ordinary working man. This man would be wise, healthy and middle-aged. He would have beard2, Whitman didn’t know it, but he was describing Lincoln. Before he was a lawyer, Lincoln worked with his hands. He was one of the ordinary people. He was wise, healthy and middle-aged, and he had a beard. In 1860 Abraham was elected president of the United States.
In March 1865, Whitman was in Washington. Abraham Lincoln became president for the second time. Whitman watched the ceremony3. The two men had never met but they had seen each other. Washington was very hot in summer. Sometimes Lincoln went outside the city. He passed Whitman’s house on the way. He and Whitman often nodded to each other.
Early in April the Civil War ended. But on April 13 someone shot President Lincoln, and on 14 Lincoln died. To Whitman it was like the death of a friend. He loved Lincoln so much. He wrote a poem to express his feelings about the death of the president. It was one of his saddest and most beautiful poems.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.presidency:总统(或校长等的)职位
2.beard:(下巴上的)胡须;络腮胡子
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请根据你所知道的情况,用英语写一篇150字左右的短文,介绍著名戏剧家莎士比亚。
第六节
Ⅰ. 简介:本文虽然主要介绍诺贝尔奖,但我们也可以从中看出诺贝尔对世界作出的重大贡献和他试图以设立诺贝尔奖来鼓励发明和发现,弥补自己因发明火药可能给世界带来的灾难的高风亮节。
Ⅱ.Passage:
After inventing dynamite1, Swedish-Alfred Nobel became a very rich man. However, he foresaw2 its universally destructive3 powers too late. Nobel preferred not to be remembered as the inventor of dynamite, so in 1895, just two weeks before his death, he created a fund to be used for awarding prizes to people who had made worthwhile contributions to mankind. Originally there were five awards: literature, physics, chemistry, medicine, and peace. Economics was added in 1968,just sixty-seven years after the first awards ceremony.
Nobel’s original of nine million dollars was invested4, and the interest on this sum is used for the awards which vary from $30000 to $125000.
Every year on December 10,the anniversary of Nobel’s death, the awards (gold medal, illuminated5 diploma, and money) are presented to the winners, Sometimes politics play an important role in the judges’ decisions. Americans have won numerous science awards, but relatively few literature prizes.
No awards were presented from 1940 to 1942 at the beginning of World WarⅡ. Some people have won two prizes, but this is rare; others have shared their prizes.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.dynamite:甘油炸药
2.foresaw: foresee的过去式:预见,预知
3.destructive:破坏性的、毁灭性的
4.invest:投资
5.illuminate:使光辉灿烂
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据所学课文内容,写一篇介绍居里夫人的短文。
第七节
Ⅰ. 简介:狄更斯是著名作家,写他的文章很多,如何才能不落俗套,本文是一个很好的范例。作者并没有直接写他的作品,但读了全文后,读者对他的作品的喜爱以及他受欢迎的程度,比直白的描写更能吸引读者。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Charles Dickens visited America in the fall of 1876. Wherever he went, the reception was always the same. The night before tickets went on sale, crowds arrived and lined up before the door. By morning, the streets became campgrounds with men, women, and children sitting or sleeping on blankets. Hustlers1 were asking $ 25 for $2 tickets and $50 for 5 sets. In New York City, over 5, 000 people waited from nine o’clock in the morning for the evening performance. Everywhere the readings were successful, but the people present were surprised to hear their favorite novel characters speak with an English accent. After 76 readings, Dickens boarded a ship for England, where his fellow passengers requested reading, he replied that rather than read a word, he would attack the captain and be put in irons2.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.hustlers:(复)乱挤乱推的人。这里指低价买来票再高价卖出去的票贩子。
2.in irons:戴着镣铐;被监禁着
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请根据下面的提示,用英语写一篇人物生平简介,介绍19 世纪英国著名小说家狄更斯。
狄更斯(1812~1870)出生于Portsmouth附近。12 岁时就不得不在工厂干活。因为父亲负债累累,他仅上了两年学。他的知识全靠自学所得。他曾在律师事务所当过职员,还当过记者,后来成为小说家。
他写了很多小说,其中之一是《双城记》。该小说于1859年完成。他的作品深受全世界读者喜爱。
第八节
Ⅰ. 简介:本文为了表现达尔文为了科学研究不怕困难、不怕牺牲的精神,选取了两个典型事例,将他的特点活灵活现地表现了出来。学习这种用典型事例表现人物特点的写法。
Ⅱ.Passage:
One day, Darwin took a piece of bark1 off a tree, and found two rare2 beetles3. He quickly caught them, one in each hand. Suddenly, he found the third one of another kind .He could not bear to let it run away, so he put the one in his right hand into his mouth without hesitation. As a result, the pungent4 liquid the beetle squeezed5 burnt his tongue. But he was already infatuated6, in utter disregard of his tongue.
One day, a friend of Darwin’s was engrossed7 in his book, suddenly he was shocked by a thump8 and sprang up from his seat. It was Darwin who broke into the house. He was breathless, his face blushed9, and he was drenched10 with sweat.
“Oh, you came all the way here in spite of the heavy rain. There must be something important. ”The friend asked at once.
“I heard that one of your pigeons had died. I came here just to ask for its dead body for fear that you threw it away.” After hearing it, the friend was greatly relieved11.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.bark:树皮
2.rare:稀有的,少见的
3.beetle:甲壳虫
4.pungent:刺鼻的,辣的
5.squeeze:挤出
6.infatuate:使迷恋,使错爱
7.engross:使全神贯注
8.thump:重击声,砰然声
9.blush:脸红
10.drench:使浸透,使淋透
11.relieve:宽慰,释然
Ⅳ.Exercise:
请根据下面的简介,用英语写一篇短文,介绍弗罗伊德。
1.弗罗伊德是维也纳著名的心理医生。
2.他很有勇气(guts)。一次,两个流氓(toughs)准备打劫(mug)他时,他用拐杖打跑了他们。
3.即使纳粹到了他的房间,他也能保持镇静。一位纳粹军官在他的抽屉里找到了1500先令,准备带走时,他说,我在维也纳行医40年,没有哪一次能得到这么多钱。你很幸运。
4.他还很幽默。他将他的工作概括为:使病人脱离精神痛苦,让他们面对日常烦恼。
5.他和他的哥哥要分担他的三个姊妹的房租,哥哥建议三个姊妹合住,以便减少租金。他说,这样虽然符合逻辑,但不符合心理学。
6.在他母亲95岁生日时,他听到乐队为皇帝的生日奏乐,就说是在为他妈妈演奏,使他母亲度过了愉快的一天。
第九节
Ⅰ. 简介:本文着重写了这位国王不畏强敌,领导全国人民坚持战斗,经历了四年艰苦卓绝的斗争,赢得了人民的爱戴,人们至今还怀念他的原因。学习本文集中笔墨写好一件事情的写法。
Ⅱ.Passage:
King Albert of the Belgians was born in 1875. In his youth he studied engineering and was especially interested in ships and airplanes. One of his favourite sports was mountain climbing, and it was as a result of falling while out climbing that he died in 1934. He was 59. He is best remembered by the Belgians for his leadership during World War I, which broke out in 1914, only five years after he came to the throne1. Belgium was officially a neutral2country at the start of the war, but because the Germans could more easily attack France by crossing Belgium, they ignored3Belgium’s neutrality, and invaded it soon after the beginning of the war. Albert realized that his small country had no chance of stopping the German army, but decided that rather than merely surrender4 the Belgian army should fight. Although almost the whole of their country was conquered5, the Belgians, led by their king, continued to fight against the Germans throughout the full four years of the war. King Albert’s wife, Queen Elizabeth, also contributed to the war effort, working in a military hospital. There she did all kinds of work, from scrubbing6 dirty floors to dressing the wounds of injured soldiers.
Ⅲ.Notes:
1.throne: : 王位
2.neutral:中立的
3.ignore:不顾
4.surrender:投降
5.conquer:征服,占领
6.scrub:擦洗
Ⅳ.Exercise:
根据下面的提示,请用英语写一篇短文,介绍Stanly Fields.
1.他创作的Sad,Sad,Cowboy 获今年普利策最佳歌曲奖。
2.小时候父亲总是让他放下吉他去做功课。父母想让他上大学,象他们一样当老师。
3.上大学后,他没有选教育专业,而是选择了 作为自己的专业。
4.上学期间去一家夜总会唱歌、弹吉他。一家唱片公司与他签了约。
5.1973年毕业后全身心投入作曲和演唱,上学期间创作的一首歌荣登1974年20首最佳歌曲第17名。
第十节
Ⅰ. 简介:马克•吐温是一位幽默作家,他不光在其作品中带给人们欢笑,日常生活中也不忘给大家欢乐。
Ⅱ.Passage:
Once Mark Twain and two friends were sitting in a restaurant. One friend had just returned from a trip to Vermont .The friend said that the air in the mountains of Vermont was very clear. In many places the echo1

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