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重视看图写文的书面表达

2021-03-01 22:06:45 0人评论 次浏览



湖南省怀化市第一中学 宫可成
作为高考的压轴试题,书面表达具有最为明显的测试信度和区分度,它无任何客观因素,其观察理解问题、分析解决问题、语言运用能力的体现一览无余。2001年及2002年的高考书面表达题均为表格式给材料作文,其特点是限定了信息范围,思维的定式和理解局限在一定的范围之内,需要的是准确、连贯的表达,考查的是语言表达基本功;体裁以说明文为主;内容题材主要体现社会生活(2001年谈减负给学习和生活带来的变化;2002年讨论的主题是公园要不要收门票)。从近十年看,高考看图写文形式的书面表达始终占有较大的比重,许多方面不同于表格式的材料作文,其特点主要是通过一幅或数幅图示内容揭示一故事情节,除语言运用能力之外,考生需要更多的思维空间,通过细致地观察、认真地推敲、准确地理解、地道地表达,从形式到内容都要和谐得体。体裁以记叙文为主;题材内容主要是家庭、环境及社会的普通生活细节。
在体裁上两种形式比较,各有特点,可以在题材内容上进行互补。但对各种能力的考查,看图写文试题对考生观察、分析、理解、解决问题的能力及综合运用语言的能力提出了更高的要求。表格式给材料作文已经进行了两年,从历年高考试题上看,给材料的书面表达形式连续两年进行已属罕见。因此在笔者看来,现在更应重视看图写文的书面表达。
范例;
Peter曾经是一公司雇员,请根据下图内容写一短文,可以适当增加一些情节,使短文连贯,最后应设计一合理的结局。字数100左右。已给出短文第一句。
提示:错字wrongly written characters 聊天室 the chat room

Peter was an employee in a company. ________________________________________
写作指导:
1. 理解到位:根据已给的短文的第一句,仔细推敲每幅图的大意,整体把握一组图的连贯性理解及题目要求,确定思维范围如人物对象;知识范围如语法结构、时态、词汇和句型等。
2. 要点到位:用一简单句写出每幅图的主题句(谁做什么?),可以保证不遗漏要点而丢分。
3. 细节到位:对每幅图主题句进行扩写、补充每幅图的次要内容(时间、地点、方式、原因等),基本保证短文对词汇数量的要求。
4. 表达到位:按情节发展先后, 整理成文。有效的使用语句间的连接成分,承上启下运用必要的连接词来体现较强的语言应用能力,使全文紧凑。
5. 检查到位:对照各图看是否覆盖所有内容要点,检查全文定稿。
中国人俗语说得好“磨刀不误砍柴工”。根据高考书面表达25 分钟的时间安排,至少15分钟时间应用来起草。在许多人认为书面表达最难,其实不然,最容易得分的手段在于书面表达。
学生习作:
Peter was once an employee in a company. Yesterday he was asked to type some important papers. He whistled as he was typing the papers in his office. The next day①he handed the papers in②to the manager. After he read the papers the manager became very angry. After a short while, Peter was called in③ to his office. The manager asked him with angrily④why he had made so many wrongly written characters recently. Peter smiled and said that because he often went to the chat room with computer⑤, he had got the habit of writing wrongly written characters. As a result of his fault he was out of work⑥.
点评:
本篇习作要点齐全,语言表达覆盖了四幅图中全部内容,并且应用了较为复杂的语法结构和词汇,有效的使用了语句间的连接,全文紧凑,具备一定的语言应用能力。然而美不掩瑕,一些语言和习惯用法的错误也存在不少,体现了习作者语言功底不够扎实。
①The next day可改为This morning或This afternoon,从上句Yesterday看,The next day应是今天的任一时刻。
②去掉in,显然习作者对hand in(上交…..)与hand …to …(把……交给……)的结构用法掌握不够好。
③called in有“请来、调来、找来”之意,用在此时此刻过于客气。改为told to come较为时宜。
④去掉with或改为in anger,修饰动词asked应用副词angrily或短语in anger作状语。
⑤去掉with computer或改为and chatted with other people on the web site.
⑥was out of work改为lost his job,得先有“失业”动作其后才会有“失业”存在的状态。
参考范文:
Peter was an employee in a company. He liked listening to music as he worked. One day he was typing a paper. Of course he listened to music as he worked. After finishing the paper, he handed it to his boss. The boss was very angry when he read it. He asked Peter to come to his office and shouted at him, “Peter! Can you explain why you have made so many wrongly written characters in the papers recently?”
Looking at the paper, Peter didn’t take it seriously and said with a smile, “I go to the chat room very often so I’ve got the habit of doing that.” As a result, he lost his job.
(109 words)
同步练习:
请根据下图内容写一短文,可以适当增加一些情节,使短文连贯。字数100左右。已给出短文第一句。
提示:网吧 web bar

I was once a good student in our class. But…
One possible version:
I was once a good student in our class. But later I liked going to web bar. I often chatted with others on the Web sites and sent messages by E-mail far into the night. So I had wasted much time that I should have spent working hard at my studies. I failed in the exam again this time and made my teacher very angry. In his office he asked me to explain why I always couldn’t pass the exams. It was at this time that I felt great shame and apologized to him, admitting that I often went to the Web bars. I promised that I would study hard and I was sure to catch up with my classmates. (110 words)
刊载英语周报《高三听说读写版》2003年第27期(约稿)
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