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书面表达最后整理

2021-03-01 22:06:53 0人评论 次浏览


成都华西中学--电子科技大学附属中学 周清
第一,写好句子
1) 熟悉并掌握形成完整句子的基本框架结构。我们知道,单词、语法是学习、掌握和运用语言的基础,然而只靠它们拼凑句子是远远不够的,耗时费力不说,拼凑出来的也多是汉语式的英语,很不地道。因此,考生平时必须牢记所学过的“固定搭配”及“词组句型”,并会活用。写句子要注意以下几点:(1)主谓要一致;(2)正确使用动词的时态、语态、语气;(3)名词的格要与代词的格一致;(4)句子结构成分完整,特别注意不要漏掉或添加成分。
2)一个句子一个重心,句意清楚,合乎逻辑。
3)句子开头首字母要大字,句末要使用正确的英语标点符号。
第二.组句成文
一般说来,文章可以通过句子的进展和句子之间的各种结合来构成。
1)熟悉并掌握表示并列、递进、转折等关系的过渡词(transitional words)。例如:
并列关系:and, as well as, also…
递进关系:besides, in addition, moreover, what’s more…
转折关系:but, yet, however, although, otherwise, or, in spite of, despite, instead of, in the end…
时间顺序:while, when, soon after, before, afterward, finally, first, then, next, as soon as …
比较、对比:like, unlike, on the contrary, on the other hand…
总结 in a word, in general, in short, above all, after all,
generally speaking…
进一步阐述:in other words, that is to say, for example, for instance, such as …
因果关系:as a result, so, thus, therefore…
2) 明确表达文章主题,内容要点全面,不要节外生枝。
3) 要点安排得当,使之文通字顺,合乎逻辑,层次清晰。
4) 注意养成写完后自我检查的习惯,应重点检查:
a, 要点有无遗漏; b. 句法、词法有没有问题;
c. 单词拼写有无错误; d. 大小写、标点符号有无问题;
e. 字数是否在题目要求范围之内。
二、高考英语写作高分秘诀
1.句式要有变化
① 复杂句、并列句
② 倒装句
(1)虚拟语气中if省略; (2)only+状语置于句首
(3)否定词置于句首 (4)地点副词置于句首
③ 强调句型
It is ……that (who)…
④ 非谓语动词。
⑤ 虚拟语气
⑥ 固定句型结构
too…to… so…that… such a…that… not only…but also… neither…nor… such as… not …until… so that… either…or…
⑦直接引语与间接引语
多种时态,动名词、不定式,并列结构
2.要使用高等级词汇及短语
① 使用高等级词汇 ② 使用短语 ③ 使用谚语 ④ 使用表强调的词,如alone, just, single, only, not…at all; on the earth; the very; on earth等
⑤ 使用修辞手法:明喻, 暗喻,夸张,头韵,拟人等
as busy as a bee; as proud as a peacock; as blind as a bat.
3. 使用连接词,过渡自然,连贯通顺,一气呵成。
1) 用于按空间展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有:
abovebefore me here on the left
acrossbelowin the distance on the right
beyond nearbyopposite to over
alsofurthernext to on top of
updownclose to beneath
under around near to along
2) 用于按时间顺序展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有:
soon, then,suddenly, at the same time, next, early,
this morning /year, now, after, at present,later, afterwards finally,at last, all of a sudden , at noon ,
in the morning/afternoon/evening
3) 用于按分析法展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有:
first, second, etc. now for this purpose
but as a resultfurthermore
finally at lastmoreover
alsothereforelikewise
anotherfor examplenext
yet for instanceon the contrary
once in additionin summary
suchin this caseon the other hand
thenotherwisein conclusion
thusin closing
4) 用于按比较法展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有:
anothermoreover in addition (to)
equally importanttoo, alsoat the same time
besidesthenin the same way
in fact like, similarly
5) 用于按对比法展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有:
on the contrary different from on the other handin contrast to despitein spite of
yet, but unlikenevertheless
not only…but also here…therethis…that
years ago…today the former…the latterthen…now the first…whereas the second
some…others one…the other once…now
on the one hand…on the other hand(一方面…另一方面)
6)逻辑关系
递进: then(然后), besides(还有), furthermore(而且), moreover(此外)
转折: however(然而), but(但是), on the country(相反), after all(毕竟)
总结: finally(最后), at last(最后), in brief(总之),
in conclusion(最后)。强调: indeed(确实), certainly(一定), surely(确定), above all(尤其)。对比: in the same way(同样地),
just as(正如), on the one hand…on the other hand
三、书面表达常用句型及短语
1、学校生活及学习成绩
I’m getting on well with one’s study
take several courses at school
have English (Chinese, Physics…) every (other )day work hard at …
put one’s heart into…
be interested in …
be fond of
like chemistry best be tired of … be good at …;
be poor at …; do well in …; be weak in …
make progress in …; improve oneself in …; fail in …
pass the examination; give sb. a passing grade;
He has the best record in school. 他的成绩最棒。
get a doctor’s degree 获得博士学位
(English is) more interesting to sb.
learn about; succeed in…; be active in class (work);
take an active part in …; learn… by heart;
work out a (maths) problem;
get 90 marks for (English); get an “A” in the exam;
have a good command of…
lay a good foundation in (language study)
won the first prize/ got the first place in the competition
the first/top three winners(前三名)
2、师生关系
get on well with sb; like to be with students;
be gentle with us; be kind to sb;
be a strict teacher; be strict with one’s pupils;
be strict in work be satisfied with …
We think of him (her) as …; help sb with sth;
praise sb for sth …; blame sb for sth..
give advice on …; question sb on …
correct the students’ homework carefully and prepare for the next day;
give sb a lot of work; try to teach sb good study habits;
make one’s lessons lively and interesting;
teach sb. sth.; teach sb to do sth.
devote all one’s time to work;
admire (sb.for) his devotion to the cause of education
佩服他对于教育事业的献身精神。
3、课余活动及周末生活
spend one’s time in many different ways;
enjoy doing things by oneself; go swimming;
go for an outing/ a picnic; have an outing at (the seashore);
see the sights of Beijing; play the piano (violin);
play chess (basketball); have a swim;
have dances on weekends; have a picnic over the weekend;
go to the cinema; have a party; hold a sports meeting;
do some reading; help sb do sth; enjoy a family trip;
get everything ready for;
ride one’s bike with sb.to(the park);
There are a lot of activities at (the beach).
We enjoy a change from our busy life in the city.
She would like to bring sth. to the picnic.
It was a very relaxing Sunday.
There are good programmes on TV on weekends.
Enjoy myself/ourselves; have a wonderful time
4、彼此沟通信息
take a message for sb; send a message to sb;
hear from sb; talk about/of sth;
tell/ask sb to do sth; get information about…;
express one’s idea (feelings) in English;
Write sb a letter saying…; apologize to sb for …;
make a speech t at the meeting; thank you for …;
explain sth to s; look upon sb as …;
think sb to be …; take sb’s side
5、事件中人的态度
would like to do; allow sb to do;
force sb to do; call on sb to do;
fee like doing; insist on doing;
drive sb. off; speak highly of sb;
speak ill of sb; think highly of sb;
be afraid to do (be afraid of …); offer to do;
refuse to do; agree to do;
prefer to do A rather than do B; had better do/ not do ;
regret doing; would rather (not) do.
keep sb from doing prevent/stop sb. (from) doing);
6、事情过程
have the habit of doing…; have no trouble doing;
make up one’s mind to do; prepare sb/oneself for …;
give up doing…; do sth as usual; sb is prepared for/to do
do what he wants us to do; set about doing;/set out to do
try/do one’s best to do…=go all out to do;
get into trouble; help sb out;
do one’s bit for the country ; do some good deeds to people;
wait for sb to do; find a way to do;
make friends with sb;
show (tell) sb. how to do…; take (send) sb to …;
pass the time doing; feel a little excited about doing…;
can’t help doing…; be prepared for more hard work;
Some are (doing sth.A), others are (doing sth.B), and still others are doing (sth C)
7、感观活动与思维活动
look around for …; look up (down) at …; catch sight of …;
take a look at …; hear sb do (doing); take notice of …;
take view of …; have a good understanding of …;
consider sb (sth) to be …; come to know…;
realize that …; know that +从句
welcome/welcomed sb at/in front of the gate
Everyone is welcome to attend the lecture/activity
8、情感与欲望
be pleased with …; be delighted in doing…;
take a pleasure in doing; be worried about;
feel surprised at … be sorry for …;
be angry with sb for sth; be angry about …(为某事生气);
look forward to doing…; wish to do;
expect to do; long for (long to do);
be sick for one’s home; have a strong desire to do …;
9、健康状况及治疗
be in good shape; be in good (poor )health;
feel weak (well, terrible, sick); have got a high (slight ) fever;
have a slight (bad) cold; take one’s temperature;
have got a pain in …; be good (bad) for one’s health(eyes);
It’s nothing serious. stay in bed until…;
save one’s life
10、其它
It (take)sb. some time to do…; It is said that …;
be fit for; be short of; be well dressed;
miss the lecture (train); change…into…;
waste/ spend time doing; be busy doing;
have no choice but to do; I can’t help it.
be in need of…; be mistaken about …;
fall behind…; catch up with;
take sth by mistake (错拿) have trouble (in) doing sth.
on behalf of; instead of; be welcome to do…;
Running, biking and swimming are popular in summer.
Skiing and skating are my favorite winter sports.
Say goodbye to sb. See sb off
11、信件常用语
You letter came to me this morning.
I (have received)/ am glad to receive your letter of July the 20th.
I’m writing to you about the lecture to be given next Monday.
I’m writing to ask if you can come next week.
How time flies! It’s three months since I saw you last.
Thank you for your letter.
In reply to your letter about (the exhibition this year)…;
Let me tell you that…
Best wishes,
Look forward to( your coming)/ receiving your letter
12、问路和应答
Go down this street
Turn night/left at the first crossroads
It’s about…metres from here
You can’t miss it
In front of behind at/a the corner(不用in)
Pass two blocks
四、 句子练习
改写下列各句,把短语变为并列句、复合句或带有分词短语、介词短语或其他短语的句子:
1. Xu comes from a working-class family.
He enrolled in college last fall.
2. The dean issued a bulletin.
It said the library would remain open at weekends.
3. We have made some progress.
We still have a long way to go.
4. The sky was cloudless.
The sun was shining brightly.
5.There were over two hundred passengers on board the plane.
About one third of them were foreigners.
6. The girl began to learn to play the piano when she was a child.
Her mother was a famous pianist.
7. Napoleon was born in 1769.
At that time Corsica had just been acquired by France.
8.She appeared on the stage.
A stormy applause broke forth.
9. He heard that his father was ill.
He was anxious to go home to see him.
He went to the station early in the morning to buy a ticket.
五:2004高考书面表达预测题
(1)电视的发展
某英文报纸发起了关于电视的发展的征文活动。电视的发展日新月异,有它的优点,但是也有缺点。请根据下表有关电视的两张表格,写一篇英文应征。
十年前现在
价格昂贵便宜
家庭拥有量40%98%
节目节目和内容少,新闻,文艺,教育体育,趣味性低涌现大量电视台,节目多,大多数很精彩。卫星电视全天播放。
收视率15%左右40%左右
优缺点画面声音质量差。导致很多人成为近视眼。由于技术进步,画面声音的质量大大提高。保护视力。看电视成为一种享受。
人们之间交流多。业余的时间主要被用于读书和学习。大量的时间都被浪费再看电视上,交流越来越少,没有时间读书。
要求:1、不要逐字翻译2、字迹工整 3、字数80~120
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(2)西部开发
假设你是某报社记者,请根据下表提供的信息写一篇英文稿,简要地报道中国开发中西部的有关情况。
主要概况范围:9个省、自治区(autonomous regions),1个直辖市(municipality);
面积:540万平方公里;
人口:2.85亿;
实施要点交通建设:修建多条公路、铁路;
环境保护:退耕还林;防治污染;
资源利用:开发利用其丰富的天然资源(resource);
人才引进:广纳各类专家、技术人员。
短文的开头和结尾已经给出;
New Development for Central and Western China
The Chinese government has recently decided to develop central and western China.
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We have every reason to believe that the development will be a great success. As a result of the great project , central and western regions of China will surely achieve better and faster development in the new century. The people will have a better life and China will surely be richer and stronger.
参考答案:This part of China includes 8 provinces and autonomous regions and one municipality, covering an area of 5.4 million square kilometers with a population of 285 million.
The government will pay special attention to its transportation. Some highways and railways will be built. To protect the nature, farmers will return farmland to forest. Also, measures should be taken to prevent pollution. Western China is rich in natural resources, which can be exploited and made full use of. To meet the need of the development, all kinds of experts and skilled workers are to be brought in.
(3)交通状况
青山村的变化:人口500,坐落在大山脚下。
过去现在
作物主要种植玉米,各种适合山区气候的经济作物。
环境治理大量的树木被砍伐,经常发生山洪,造成极大损失植树造林,水土不再流失,没有山洪,生命财产得到保护。
交通只有一条小路通向山外,出行困难。修建了一条宽阔的马路,交通旅行多很方便,经济得到促进。
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(4)商业发展:假如你组在一个小镇里,近几年小镇里的商店发生了巨大变化,试根据下表写一篇短文,介绍情况。
过去现在
数量只有大小5家商店大小15家商店
商店种类一个大商场商场、超市、便利店大中小各种商店
便利商店离家远,购物不方便住的旁边就有一家超市,购物非常方便
商品种类商品种类不多,应有尽有,
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V
(5)环境状况:人们的卫生意识不断增强,下表是莫请谋市近年来的环境改变情况,请你写一篇短文。
过去现在
人们习惯人们随地吐痰没有人随地吐痰
街道上灰尘很多,很脏街道上总是打扫得很干净。
街道街道两边树木稀少。街道上绿树成荫,所有的空地上都有绿草覆盖
污染工厂随意排放大量烟雾、废水,空气和水受到严重污染。工厂严禁排放有毒废气、废水,环境得到改善。
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(6)通信业今昔对比
过去现在
通信方式人们主要通过书信,电报、电话联系。人们通过电子邮件、电话、传真(fax)联系。
通信质量联系不方便。通过电子邮件、手机(mobile phone),方便快捷。
购买价格电脑、手机太贵,用不起现在电脑、手机价格便宜,手机成为人们必备的通信工具。
使用收费电报、电话费昂贵。打电话、上网收费大幅下降
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