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  Type1引述他人观点(为提出自己观点铺垫)

  [1] It is widely(commonly) accepted(hold)+THAT

  [2] A widely accepted(commonly) hold idea(point of view,viewpoint, opinion,assumption)is +THAT/NP

  [3] A/The dominant(prevalent, prevailing)idea(see [2])is NP/to DO

  [4] It is taken for granted+THAT(or:We often/frequently take it for granted THAT)

  [5] People(The majority) seem to get accustomed to the idea(see [2]),without questioning,THAT

  [6] People are willing to regard NP1 as NP2/ADJ

  [7] People are willing to DO,while reluctant to DO

  Type2提出异议

  [1] However (But),…

  [2] Such idea(see[1-2]),if not entirely ADJ1,is somewhat ADJ2 and needs careful consideration.

  ADJI=unreasonable,unacceptable, inappropriate,improper,undesirable,

  etc;

  ADJ2=misleading,doubtrul, etc

  [3] In fact(As a matter of fact),…(follow[2])

  [4] However, it is not (quite, necessarily)the case.

  [5] This (It) is not (quite, necessarily) the case and needs to bo fruther considered/discussed.(or:further consideration/discussion)

  Type3论述的展开:说明原因和理由,层进,举例,转折

  [1] The reason lies in several aspects,

  [2] The reason why+clause+[1, underlined]

  [3] There are several remarkable reasons.

  [4] 层进in addition, besides, fruthermore, what’s more, on the other hand, meanwhile, for one thing…for another; finally, above all, in short.

  [5] 举例for example, for instance, such (general term) as (specific terms),a typical (striking) example is that, a case in point

  [6] 转折however, but, nevertheless,on the contrary

  [7] 条件if , provided that, unless, as long as,etc

  Type4 就…而言;关于

  [1] as far as …is/are concemed: As far as current situation is concerned

  [2] as t the problem as to NP有关…的问题

  Type5问题

  [1] Although much effort has been made, the situation is far from satisfactory (or: the problem remains unsolved, little improvement has been achieved)

  [2] There is a tendency, as recent study (investigation) has pointed out (shown, revealed, indicated),+THAT

  [3] There is growing concern about +NP

  [4] It will inevitably (is likely to )result in (lead to ) unwanted (serious) consequence (or NP)

  [5] Unfortunately,…

  [6] We will not be able to afford the risk of overlooking the seriousness of the matter.

  [7] The process, once initiated, is most likely irreversible.

  [8] We are constantly (frequently) faced with NP

  TYPE6重要与必要;(应)注意与重视

  [1] NP1 is of great importance (necessity, value) in NP2 (or: NP is of enormous significance)

  [2] The importance (necessity) of NP (to do sth.) lies in (the fact) that…

  [3] NP1 plays, as is known, an irreplaceably important role in NP2

  [4] The irreplaceably important role NP1 plays in NP2 is significant (obvous)

  [5] NP1 is an indispensable part of NP2

  [6] It is important (necessary) to DO (or:THAT)

  [7] Special attention should be pay to …(or: We should pay special attention to…)

  [8] What we should take into consideration is +NP

  Type7行动

  [1](immediate, emergent, effective) Measures are being taken (has been taken, should be taken) to DO

  [3] We have made much effort, there is still more we need to make (cf. We have learnt a lot, there is much more we need to lea123)

  Type8二择其一

  [1] If it were left for me to decide whether (wh-clause),I would, without hesitation, choose+to DO (or: I would prefer the former/the latter)

  [2] To DO/NP is a matter of prerence.

  [3] It is difficult to make a choice for one can hardly gain most without losing any.

  [4] The difficulty lies in the fact that the advantages and disadvantages of both cases are equally obvious.

  [5] In fact, we may well preserve a delicate balance or compromise between the two than go to extreme.

  [6] It is not sensible to exclude one of the choices completely

  [7] (of two conflicting ideas, concepts) Though conflicting to one another, they are so closely associated that understanding one will be impossible without discussing the other.

  [8] The benefits of NP are varied…

  [9]While disadvantages are unavoidable, it is the advantages that prevail.a

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